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HISTORY OF HYper Text Markup LAnguage

What is HTML

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It’s the foundation for creating web pages and is considered a core technology of the World Wide Web, along with CSS and JavaScript.

Who developed HTML?

Hyper Text Markup Language was developed in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at the CERN research center in Switzerland. There were a total of eighteen HTML Tags in the early edition.
Around 140 HTML tags are available right now, though not all are supported by the latest browsers.

Versions of Hyper TExt markup language

During the early days of internet development, Tim Berners-Lee took on the role of creator for HTML 1.0 and produced a program called WorldWideWeb in 1991 that later changed to Nexus. 

This web browser alongside HTML played a vital part in shaping the evolution of the internet.

This browsing tool allowed users to browse and investigate HTML websites.

Its simple design facilitated effortless movement through hyperlinks that directed them toward various pages, laying the foundation for modern web exploration.

1. HTML 1.0

1993 marked the introduction of HTML 1.0. At that point, only a few developers have been working on building websites.

Features of HTML 1.0:

  • Essential structural elements were introduced in this Hyper Text Markup Language version, including headings, paragraphs, lists, and links. These aids have enabled web developers to arrange information hierarchically for better presentation and organization purposes.

  • With HTML 1.0, the options for text formatting were basic and included only bold and italic styles. However, more advanced alternatives emerged in subsequent versions of the language.

  • The <img> tag was first introduced in HTML 1.0, allowing web developers to add inline images that complemented text content and enriched the user experience on web pages.

2. HTML 2.0

HTML 2.0 was released in 1995. Along with additional features, it includes all of HTML 1.0’s features.

Features of HTML 2.0:

  • The <table> element was introduced, giving web developers the ability to generate tabular data structures.

  • The introduction of the <figure> and <figcaption> elements in HTML 2.0 provided improved image support, enabling web developers to enhance the visual experience by associating captions with images.

  • In the Hyper Text Markup Language second iteration, alignment, and margin attributes were introduced for various elements like images and tables. These attributes enabled developers to govern how these entities are positioned and spaced within a web page.

  • Anchors were improved by adding the capability to link directly to particular sections of a webpage using the “id” attribute, thereby enabling internal page navigation and enhancing their functionality.

3. HTML 3.0

In 1997, Hyper Text Markup Language was approved as a markup language for web development and design. That very year also saw the emergence of version 3.0 of this software coding system. Here, Dave Raggett presented a new HTML draft that enhanced the language’s ability to create a website.
Unfortunately, the browser’s ability to implement additional improvements was restricted by its robust features.

Features of HTML 3.0:

  • In HTML 3.0, tables were improved and expanded upon from what had been offered in the earlier version of HTML 2.0. The introduction of specific elements such as <th> for table headers, <tr> to signify rows within a table, and <td>, which stands for individual cells contained within these rows or columns enabled more advanced organization and presentation options when dealing with data in tabular format.

  • With the introduction of HTML 3.0, websites gained an exciting new feature – the <form> element. This advancement allowed for interactive forms to be implemented on web pages, empowering developers to incorporate a variety of user input options such as text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, and dropdown menus that could gather information from visitors.

  • HTML 3.0 incorporated essential input validation functions, such as attributes “required” and “pattern,” that enabled developers to guarantee the authenticity of form field data before users submitted it.
    HTML 3.0 brought about client-side image maps that allowed images to be divided into clickable regions, creating interactive navigation within a single image for developers.

Additional elements in HTML 3.0:
  • The Hyper Text Markup Language version 3.0 came out and included the <audio> and <video> elements. These allowed web developers to easily incorporate audio and video content into their pages without having to use additional applications or plugins.

  • The introduction of the <object> element in Hyper Text Markup Language version three enabled external objects, including interactive media and documents, to be embedded into web pages. This feature allowed for greater flexibility when incorporating diverse types of multimedia content.

  • The <applet> element enabled the integration of Java applets which were miniature software programs created in Java. These applets could be incorporated within web pages to offer interactive and dynamic features.

4. HTML 4.0

1999: The widely used HTML 4.0 version is released. It’s been a great success.

Features of HTML 4.0:

  • HTML 4 presented two sorts of Document Type Definitions (DTDs) called Strict and Transitional. The main objective of the Strict DOCTYPE was to comply with strict markup regulations, whereas the Transitional DOCTYPE facilitated more flexible and backward-compatible markup.

  • The forms capabilities introduced in HTML 3.0 were enhanced with the release of the HTML 4 version, resulting in improved functionality. The inclusion of file uploads, hidden fields and password fields as new form input types broadened the scope for acquiring user inputs considerably.

Additional elements in HTML 4.0:
  • The Hyper Text Markup Language version 4 at hand offers upgraded support for scripting languages, such as JavaScript. With the <script> element being introduced by this version, developers can insert and run client-side scripts within an HTML document with ease.

  • With HTML 4 came improved table and frame capabilities, with the introduction of new attributes and elements for enhanced control over their presentation and behavior.

  • HTML 4.01 incorporated accessibility improvements, including the inclusion of alt attributes that provide alternative text descriptions for users with visual impairments on images.

5. HTML 5.0

2014 brought a worldwide deployment and implementation of HTML 5.0. It is defined as HTML 4.01’s upgraded version.

Features of HTML 5.0:

  • HTML5 was specifically created to cater to mobile devices, ensuring better adaptability and interaction with varying screen sizes. This feature paved the way for the seamless development of websites and web applications that can be conveniently accessed through mobile devices

  • Another notable addition was the Canvas element which made dynamic graphics creation possible without any third-party plugins or software. With this tool at their disposal developers could bring animations and visual effects in real-time using pure code directly on a page instead of relying on static images alone.

  • Overall HTML5 has taken advanced steps towards more accessible online spaces with numerous innovations that will shape our digital future even further.

  • HTML5 brought about elements and attributes that eased the creation of web pages suitable for mobile devices, supporting their user-friendly design.

Additional features of HTML5:
  • Incorporating features for navigation menus, and mobile-specific inputs and controlling the display of web content on portable devices is crucial. HTML5 has embraced responsive design principles by facilitating variable layout options whilst CSS media queries enable developers to adjust styling and screen size depending on a device’s resolution.

  • With the help of HTML5, it is now possible for developers to incorporate touch event APIs into their web applications. Consequently, they can create user interfaces that feature hand gestures such as swiping and pinch-to-zoom movements or multi-touch interactions. This significantly improves interaction and engagement levels for users.

  • Accessing users’ geographical coordinates can be made possible through the use of Geolocation API, an intrinsic feature that comes with HTML5. Such functionality empowers developers to construct geospatial web applications and proffer services that rely on location information.

  • With the introduction of new elements, improved multimedia capabilities, and mobile device support, HTML5 has brought a revolution in web development. It lays the groundwork for responsive design while providing flexibility that makes it an industry standard for modern website creation. Because of its features, websites built with this technology can offer richer content and interactive experiences than ever before.

Additional elements in HTML5:
  • HTML5 brought in new and innovative elements like <header>, <nav>, <section>, and </article> to enrich digital content. These tags led to improved website layout organization, resulting in better user engagement through effortless navigation experience while also enhancing search engine optimization.
  • Furthermore, HTML5 also introduced audio and video elements that allowed multimedia content integration into a webpage seamlessly. This feature greatly expanded possibilities when creating engaging user experiences through media-rich websites.
  • HTML5 provides improvements to form fields through the introduction of new input types and attributes. These include email, URL, date, time, and range options. Another enhancement in HTML5 is its native support for Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Through this format, users can create scalable vector-based images and animations that easily integrate with HTML documents.

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